Environmental Geology lecture outline - Shorelines and related environmental concerns. Some answers to questions.

What are general environmental concerns associated with shorelines?

Stunning image of result of washover of Dauphin Island during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Photo source: USGS - http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/coastal-change/overwash.html

The influence of three hurricanes on a barrier island complex. Image source USGS: http://marine.usgs.gov/coastalchangehazards/research/storm-impacts.html .

Estimated recurrence intervals for hurricanes for different parts of the coast. Image from NOAA - http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/climo/ .

What basic forces are involved in shaping shorelines?

Amount of subsidence for a few major cities:
How do you determine and what are rates of shoreline retreat?

Shoreline before Hurricane Ivan along part of the Chandeleur Islands off the Louisiana coast.

Islands after Hurricane Ivan. Note lighthouse for position. Photo sources (and more information): USGS sitehttp://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/hurricane/postivanphotos.htm

How does sand move in shoreline setting?

Schematic cartoon of sources that produce sediment and of processes that move sediment around in a low-slope coastal environment.

How can barrier island morphology change with time?

What are possible causes of shoreline retreat?

What are engineering responses to shifting shorelines.

Groins, rip-rap and seawall employed to stop erosion. Image source USGS site: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/coastal-classification/figures/fig11.html

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