Week 4 - Martian volcanism:

Types of volcanic constructs:

Note - what volcanic forms common on earth seem to be missing on Mars?

Are pyroclastic deposits evident on Mars:


Samples from Mars

Chassigny meteorite:

Nakhlites:

Shergotites:

SNC - meteorites from Mars. 12 or so 'suspected' Martian meteorites are known.

What are cumulates?

"On Mars, low gravity and low atmospheric pressure at the surface result in a crustal bulk density profile different from other planets (Wilson & Hed, 1994), which means that magma reservoirs are predicted to be deeper than on earth by a factor of four." Head & Coffin, 1997, Large Igneous Provinces: A Planetary Perspective; in Geophysical Monograph 100, American Geophysical Union, p. 420.

How did cumulates get excavated? How did fluid inclusion samples of Martian atmosphere get incorporated?

One distinctive aspect of Martian volcanoes are the large calderas. For Mons Olympus the caldera complex is 80 km across. What are the implications of this large size for plumbing?

One interesting 'problem' is that the flows that should be associated with large scale caldera collapse are not really evident!


Are some Martian flows komatiites?


Why might Martian volcanism be different?

Cooling rates - how does a lava flow cool?


Historical evolution of volcanism on Mars:


Why are the three Tharsis volcanoes in a line?


What controls how high martian volcanos can grow?


In depth and recent source on Martian volcanism: Peter Cattermole, 1996, Planetary Volcanism, Wiley.


Reading for next time:

A. D. Fortes, Discriminating Between Models for the Formation of the Northern Lowlands of Mars.

Head and Wilson, 2002, Tharsis Radial graben systems as a surface manifestation of plume related dike intrusion complexes ... JGR. Don't read in detail, but focus on abstract and diagrams. Spend an hour and see what you can learn in that time.