Notes: Moving on to the stratrigraphic framework - the critical stratigraphic units are the Rurikfjellet through Carolinefjellet Formations. The Rurikfjellet consists of mostly deep marine black shales, with a coarsening upward, regressive top portion known as the Ullaberget Member, interpreted to represent the initial regression associated with onset of HALIP uplift. The Helvetiafjellet Fm. consists of fluvial sandstones with some coals, and interdistributory bay shallow marine deposits and represents the culmination of the initial regression. It has a transitional contact with the overlying marine Carolinefjellet formation that signals a regional transgression. The Carolinefjellet is unconformably overlain by Tertiary sands, with a geometry such that it is a bit over a km thick in the S and only some 250 meters in the north of Svalbard. We have previously suggested that this second unconformity could be due to a second pulse of HALIP activity, a double flood basalt pattern seen in other LIPs.