Environmental Geology - GEOL 101 Exam 1 Spring Y2K Inquisitor - H. D. Maher Jr.

This is a practice exam from Spring 2000. The actual exam will have the same format, but will naturally not cover the exact same material. My suggestion is to go through this exam after you have studied the material in order to identify portions of the material covered that you might want to study more. From year to year the exact content of the course varies a bit. There may be a question or two asked in this test which we did not study. However, most of the material should look familiar.

Matching: (Choose the best match {2 pts. each}) EQ = earthquake.

 1____ Verhultz  A) history and present influenced by living on carbonate platform and karst terrane.
 2____ cryosols  B) Hawaiian island w mega-tsunami deposit caused by large submarine mass wasting.
 3____ aridisols  C) material transported by mass wasting, often angular & poorly sorted, debris flow source.
 4____ Dust Bowl Era  D) dam site in Pakistan where basin filled up with sediment before project paid off.
 5____ Lanai  E) type of flood control device extensively used, many failed in 1993 Mississippi flooding.
 6____ joints  F) developed simple equation for population growth with restraint term, exhibits chaos.
 7____ colluvium  G) sinkhole filled with seasonal sediments (& climate record) & male mammoth skeletons.
 8____ U.S.G.S.  H) 1900 hurrican flood destroyed it, >5,000 fatalities, present seawall and platform .
 9____ Mangla Res.  I) due to depression combined w drought, massive wind erosion event, birth of SCS .
 10___ levees  J) tide dominated delta with history of extensive flooding and loss of life.
 11___ Galveston,TX  K) soils were freeze-thaw action is primary process, patterned ground, permafrost assoc.
 12___ Bangla Desh L) arrays of planar fractures in rocks, important as potential slip and solution surfaces.
 13___ Afatchalaya  M) soils where evaporation and calcium carbonate precipitation dominate.
 14___Yucatan Mayans  O) organization that maintains stream-gauge network for country, provides discharge data .
 15___ Mammoth site, SD  P) alternate path for Mississippi to Gulf, bypass of New Orleans, major ecosystem shift.


Short answer and diagrammatic questions:


1) On the web site and in lecture we covered five possibilities for how to approach understanding complex natural systems which are often being dealt with in environmental science. List three of the five. You may also include other possibilities not listed. (3 pts.)

a)_________________________________________________________
b)_________________________________________________________
c)_________________________________________________________
 

2) Below is a series of numbers describing the time-incremental growth of a population. a) Fill in the missing number in the sequence. b) circle the portion that represents unimpeded growth, and underline the portion that represents a history of changing growth constant and of population restraint by some environmental factor c) Give the name for the mathematical progression evident during unimpeded growth: (3 pts.)

name: _________________________________

2 -> 6 -> 18 -> 54 -> ______ -> 486 -> 1,458 -> 4,374 -> 2,345 -> 2,132 -> 2,632 ->3,542 -> 1,857

Bonus (5 pts.); What is the incremental growth constant for unimpeded growth in the above sequence?

3) Loss of property for a given size natural disaster (e.g. earthquakes, floods) has greatly increased in some regions because of an increase in ________________ ______________, which describes the number of people per unit surface area and is general highest along __________________________ . _______________ __________________ describes the ability of an area to sustain a given population, and is determined by the availability of critical natural resources. (3 pts.)

4) We discussed in class 6 different engineering concerns associated with soils. Each one of the situations depicted below is best associated with one of those. Label each situation with the appropriate concern. (4 pts.)


___________________________ ____________________ _______________________________

Give a city in the U.S. where the concern associated with the third situation is prevalent. ___________________

5) Include in the appropriate box of cross-section diagram of a soil the following: i) parent material, ii) zone of illuviation (precipitation),iii) zone of elluviation (leaching), iv) concentration of organics. Mark with an asterisk the zone most affected by salinization, and mark with a check the zone most affected by wind erosion. (3 pts.)

6) List two types of nonagricultural human activity that have demonstrable led to increased soil erosion. (2 pts.)

a)____________________________________________ b) __________________________________

7) Fill out the following for a case history covered in the text or in class of a mass wasting event that caused damage. (5 pts.)

Year of occurrence ______________________ Location ____________________________

Type of mass wasting event __________________________

Triggering factor _________________________________________

Loss of life __________________________________________

Loss of property ______________________________________

Attempts or possibility of mitigation:

8) In this cross-section view of the important forces determining whether slip on a plane occurs or not, name the 4 different vectors represented in the space available. Which one does the rock bolt need to be parallel to in order to help stabilize the slip surface? ________. Which one does drainage of the toe change? ______ Will vector D get larger or smaller as ø (the angle of inclination) increases and will stability increase or decrease (circle the right answers)? (5 pts.)

9) List three factors that can promote slope instability. (3 pts.)

a)_________________________________________________________

b)_________________________________________________________

c)_________________________________________________________

10) The part of the dam that allows flood waters to safely bypass the structure is the __________________ . _________________________ controls the lifespan of a dam, and with time decreases the storage capacity of the dam basin. Loss of water from the dam basin occurs by _____________________ into the atmosphere, and ____________________ into the underlying rock basin. Dam basin waters become ___________________ with bottom waters being colder and __________________ in oxygen. (3 pts.)

11) Draw a map view below of a simple meandering system, with the following labeled components: cut banks, point bars, a oxbow lake (formed by meander cutoff). Indicate the direction of flow with a single arrow and the direction meanders will migrate with double arrows.

 

 

 

 

 

In attempt to stop a river or stream meander from migrating _______ ________ is often deployed along the __________ ____________ . The size of the material needed is determined by _________________________________________. The Missouri River no longer migrates along a good portion of its length - this is because the _______________________________________ has emplaced ____________________ along much of its
length to keep the flow concentrated in the middle of the channel. (5 pts.)

12) The plot below is an example of the approach used in estimating the size of floods of a certain recurrence interval. Use it to answer the following questions. Note that the size of the 10 year flood is about 1350 m3/sec.

a) What will be the size of the 100 year flood? _______________

b) What specific engineering use can this estimate be put to (we mentioned quite a few possibilities in class)?_____________________________________ _________________________________________________

c) What is the basic assumption behind this approach?______________________________________________________________________

d) For Papillion creek in the Omaha area what process causes this basic assumption to be in error? __________ _____________________ (4 pts.) Bonus: What will be the approximate size of the 1000 year flood. (2 pts.)

13) List two of the various processes that may be contributing to ongoing shoreline retreat. (2 pts.)

a) ___________________________________________ b) ________________________________________

14) Define wave base and describe what determines its value. (3 pts.)

 

15) Use the schematic map diagram of a barrier island complex below to answer the following.

a) A,B,C are different forms of hard stabilization. Name each: A _______________________, B _____________________, and C) __________________________.

b) The arrows L, M, N, O show directions of sand transport, currents of sand important for understanding coastal dynamics. For each one name the event and/or phenomena that moves the sand in this manner. L _____________________________, M ________________________________, N __________________________________________ O _____________________________________.

c) Finally, mark with an X the sites where erosion is likely to be concentrated in the future, and with a D the sites where deposition and sand build-up may occur. (6 pts.)

 

16) Will the storm surge be higher for Charleston if a hurricane eye passes to the south of it or north of it? How high might the storm surge be for a class 4 or 5 hurricane - inches, several feet, tens of feet, up to a hundred feet? Circle the right ones. (2 pts.)

17) What technique could you use to find plugged sinkholes? ________________________________ (3 pts.)

18) ____________________________ is the most common example of the soluble bedrock that underlies karst terrane. Carbon dioxide dissolved in the water makes it more ______________ and increases the dissolution activity. The residue from surface dissolution forms a _______________ ____________ soil, while the solution creates _________ ________________ that often provides problems by building scale up in pipes. (4 pts.)

19) On the x-section diagram below mark the following: plugged sinkhole, vadose zone, phreatic zone, cave system. Which sinkhole might be most prone to collapse (identify with an arrow) and why? (3 pts.)

Reason why: __________________________________________________________________

20) There is always something you studied that I didn't ask about and so this question can address this. Simply write a question that pertains to the material we studied in this course so far. You need not answer it, only devise the question. This is not a bonus question, and it will be your benefit to respond. (4 pts.)