Geology 1010 lecture outline - Energy Resources
Where we do obtain energy from?
What are the relative contributions of different energy sources to the energy 'picture'?
Summary of recent energy usage based on 1995 numbers from DOE report (website). I've added related environmental concerns.
What are factors determining economics of geologic resource exploitation?
How much oil is left (oil reserves and resources, future projections, and energy policy)?
Below tables taken from USGS report at http://www.usgs.gov/public/press/public_affairs/press_releases/pr1183m.html.
Table 1. Volumes of undiscovered world petroleum, by commodity, from this assessment (mean values, exclusive of the United States) and the previous USGS assessment
|Commodity||USGS 1993 Assessment
|USGS 2000 Assessment|
|Undiscovered oil||539 billion barrels||649 billion barrels|
|Undiscovered natural gas||915 BBOE *1||778 BBOE|
|Undiscovered natural gas liquids||90 BBOE||207 BBOE|
|World Total||1544 BBOE||1634 BBOE|
*1BBOE = billion barrels of oil equivalent.
Table 2. Volumes of undiscovered oil and undiscovered natural gas by region, including percentages of world totals (mean values, exclusive of the United States).
|Percent of world total||Undiscovered natural gas (trillion cubic feet)||Percent of world total|
|1: Former Soviet Union||116||17.9 %||1611||34.5 %|
|2: Middle East and North Africa||230||35.4 %||1370||29.3 %|
|3: Asia-Pacific||30||4.6 %||379||8.1 %|
|4: Europe||22||3.4 %||312||6.7 %|
|5: North America*||70||10.9 %||154||3.3 %|
|6: Central and South America||105||16.2 %||487||10.4 %|
|7: Sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica||72||11.0 %||235||5.0 %|
|8: South Asia||4||0.6 %||120||2.6 %|
* Exclusive of the United States
Note the geopolitical distribution!
Simple facts and simple-minded extrapolation: Annual consumption rate - 25 billion barrels/year global consumption. 859 Bb normal reserves. Straight line and simple minded extrapolation - <40 years of reserves left (still resources). Estimate of total from this report -> 2120 Bb oil left in ground. Perhaps < hundred years of oil resource left.
What factors will likely lengthen this estimate?
What factors will likely shorten this estimate?
U.S. position in the global context (95 DOE #s):
What are exploration techniques for hydrocarbons?
Concerns associated with transportation, refinement?
What are concerns associated with intensive fossil fuel use?
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