South America


Outline

  1. Physical Setting.
    • Landscapes
    • Climate
  2. Development through time
    • Pre-Iberian Cultures
    • Spanish Conquest
    • Incas
    • Plantations and Haciendas
    • Problems with Government
    • Political Problems
  3. Population and Culture
    • Population Distribution
    • Culture and Ethnicity
  4. Demographic Analysis (FROM POPULATION DATA SHEET)
    • Population Growth
    • Under 15 / Over 65
    • Infant Mortality
    • Percent Urban
    • GNI PPP
  5. Regional Development
    • Northern Region
    • Mountainous Region
    • Southern Region
    • Brazil as a separate Region
  6. Countries
    • Brazil
    • Colombia
    • Argentina
    • Peru
    • Venezuela
    • Chile
    • Ecuador
    • Bolivia
    • Paraguay
    • Uruguay
    • The Guianas
    • Guyana
    • Suriname
    • French Guiana
  7. References
  8. Review Questions

Physical Setting

South America has a diverse topography that consists of plains in the south along with mountains in the west. The Andes Mountains run along the western coast from Venezuela to Argentina. The Amazon Basin dominates the north central area of South America while the Pampas are the plains located in the south. Much of the rest of the geography is characterized by plateau country. The Amazon River is the major river in the north with the Parana, flowing through Paraguay and Argentina, is the major waterway of the south.

The climate of South America is similar to that of North America. The north is fairly moist due to its equatorial proximity. As one travels south away from the equator, the climate becomes drier. The Atacama Desert, the only desert within South America, is located in Chile in the southwest. In the mountainous regions of the west, it is colder at the higher elevations with approximately a three-degree drop in temperature for every thousand-foot increase in elevation.

Development Through Time

The Inca civilization was the first civilization to inhabit South America, and they were indigenous to Columbia and Peru. The Incas developed a very advanced and centralized society. This was shown through their domestication of the llama, religious architecture, and appreciation for the arts. The Incas numbered nearly 20 million during the peak of their civilization. However, as the Europeans began to arrive in South America, the Inca civilization began to decline quickly, particularly in the south. Some of the Incas' contributions are still being felt today. For example, the Inca language, Quechua, is still spoken by millions. There is still a large Indian population in the north, the Andes, and Brazil.

The Spanish Conquest began in the 1500's and was very rapid. Shortly after 1521, the Aztecs were defeated. Francisco Pizarro, having first heard of the Incas in 1527, withdrew to Spain to organize the overthrow of the Incas. Four years later, Francisco returned to the Peruvian Coast. In 1533 the party achieved victory over Cuzco. Brazil was settled and given to the Portuguese through the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Some of the Incas were killed through direct confrontation with the Europeans while most succumb to European diseases for which the Incas had no natural immunity. The fall of the Incas was abrupt. Perhaps the swiftness of their development contributed to its fatal weakness, but the empire was heading towards internal revolt within its society.

The plantations of South America are generally located in the central north because of the favorable growing conditions found in this area. Sugar is the primary crop. One of the major plantation areas is located along the northeastern Brazilian coast. Others can also be found along the Atlantic and Caribbean coastlines of northern South America. Haciendas are located within the drier interior lands. Livestock grazing is a common occupation in this area because of the dry conditions.

Pizarro founded Lima, the west coast headquarters for the Spanish conquerors, in 1535. Naturally, the territories located the furthest from Lima were first to establish independence from Spain through the leadership of Simon Bolivar. In 1824, Spanish rule in South America came to an end. However, since gaining independence from Spain, South American countries have undergone many unsuccessful military dictatorships. For example, Bolivia has had 30 separate governments since the 1960's. Chile was communist up until 1973 when the communist government was overthrown by the military. In the early 1990's, Chile held its first elections in the country's history.

Political problems have been a critical issue facing most part of the continent.  Many times, it is due to ineffective leaders, different type of governments wanting to take control, the people, the lack of effective authority, and more.  Colombia for example, experienced an oligarchy of church, military, and civil officers throughout its colonial era until it gained independence. However, it was not easy to keep the oligarchy system from wanting to intervene until a new land law was enacted in 1936 that changed the whole outlook. As one problem leads to another, Colombia went into an era of “indiscriminate violence” that lasted about 30 years where a war between the liberals of Bogota and the conservatives of Antioquia broke out.  It was later agreed upon the division of national cabinet posts, governorships, and mayoral offices in proportion to the number of votes each obtains. Unfortunately, other threats are arising even after the peace has been restored such as some wealthy and powerful “drug warlords” who has begun to control certain parts of the land and performing illegal actions when they are opposed by the elected national officials.  Some of the highest officers of the country, from Supreme Court justices to cabinet ministers and presidential candidates have been less fortunate enough to get kidnapped or assassinated.  Another country that has faced political problems is Argentina.  This country has faced severe political and social problems due mostly to its economic decline.  Strikes, demonstrations, and urban violence have erupted as one political administration follows another. In 1973, Peron returned from exile because the nation had wanted the stability of the past but he soon died and his wife took over.  She was later removed in 1976 by military and civilian rulers. Despite the fact that it has the largest GNP in South America of $8,030, Argentina still face numerous economic problems along with their influence on the outside world.

Population and Culture

South America's total population currently is about 345 million people. Seventy-eight percent of South America's population is urbanized. Brazil accounts for nearly 50% of the continent's total population with170.1 million people living within its borders. Colombia follows with a population of 40 million and then Argentina at 37 million with nearly half centered around Buenos Aires. Peru has about 27.1 million people. Lima, the capital city of Peru, has about one-third of the total Peruvian population. Next, is Venezuela, with 24.2 million people and majority living on the northern coast near the capital city, Caracas.  Chile’s population is 15.2 million, which centers mainly on Santiago, its capital and largest city. Ecuador is about 11.7 million in population and Bolivia has 8.3 million people.  After Bolivia is Paraguay, which has a population of 5.5 million, whereas Uruguay’s population is 3.2 million with 45% living in the capital city of Montevideo.  The last three countries all have a population of less than 1 million people. Guyana has a population of .7 million and Suriname has .4 million people.  The country with the smallest population is French Guiana of .2 million.

South America consists of many complex heterogeneous societies and cultures. The Indian population is found mainly in the northwestern Andes Mountains. For example, Peru's population is about 30-40% Indian. In contrast, Brazil's Indian population (less than one million) accounts for less than 1% of the total population (160.5 million). In the south, Uruguay and Paraguay both have nearly 85% of their populations made up of "pure" Europeans. Conversely, Brazil has a large concentration of blacks along its coastlines, descendants of slaves brought to South America during the 1600's through the 1700's to work the sugar cane fields. The brunt of the European settlers came from Spain and Portugal and consisted mainly of men. Argentina has a large Italian population, descendants of indentured servants while the Germans and Swiss also settled in Chile and Brazil.

Regional Development

The northern regions of South America include Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guinea. This area has plantations, livestock ranching, and traditional sedentary cultivation. These countries generally have had more contact and trade with Middle and North America and thus are more economically advanced in comparison to the rest of the continent. Venezuela exports oil while Colombia exports coffee and narcotics, with the U.S. being the major importer.

The mountainous regions of South America include Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The national capital of Lima is located within this area, in Peru. There still exists some traditional sedentary cultivation in this area, but it is basically seen as a non-agricultural area. Most of the people in this area are of Indian descent.

The southern regions of South America consist of Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Chile is primarily a non-agricultural area while Argentina consists basically of livestock ranching. Grain farming is found in Uruguay. The south is considered fairly well developed as shown through higher GNP, low birth rate, and diverse economies associated with this area.

Brazil is considered to be set apart as its own region. Brazil has a growing economy along with a growing population due to the government's push for population growth. A large portion of Brazil is involved in 1ivestock ranching and shifting cultivation. Tropical plantations can be found along the eastern coast of Brazil.

Countries

Brazil is the largest country in South America both in land mass and population. Brazil, with a growing population of 170.1 million, is the fifth largest country in the world. During the 1700s, the Spanish gave Brazil to the Portuguese, which at one point was divided among eleven Portuguese families. Since then Brazil has gone through a series of "boom and bust" cycles. The first boom was the sugar cane crop. Many African slaves were brought to Brazil to work the fields because sugar cane is a labor-intensive crop. As a result, Brazil is the only country in South America today with a large African population. The sugar cane bust came when competition from other countries basically killed Brazil's monopoly on the sugar cane market. The second boom cycle was based on the gold and silver found near the Rio. The third boom cycle happened around the turn of the century and focused on the production of natural rubber around the city of Manaus. The production of rubber at this time was so profitable for some Brazilians that they would actually send their laundry out to Europe to be cleaned. The bust came when a process was developed to produce synthetic rubber from oil. Another boom centered on the coffee industry in Sao Paulo, but this boom too was busted by a change in climate. The current boom in Brazil is related to the industry centered on Sao Paulo. However, Sao Paulo is lagging behind in developing an infrastructure for the city. For example, water and sewage lines are non-existent. The interior and southern portions of Brazil are becoming big in agriculture and beef but at the expense of cutting down the rain forest. The climate of Brazil ranges from the rain forest climate of the Amazon Basin to the humid climate of the south. Brazil has many mineral resources including iron ore, gold, tin, manganese, and aluminum ore along with oil and natural gas fields. The Brazilian economy is the ninth largest in the world and its modern industrial base is ranked tenth. Brazil is expected to become a world force in the 21st century.

Colombia, the second largest country in South America, is considered to be a very poor country with no real resources. Colombian countryside is characterized by llanos, or savanna country. Eastern Colombia consists of upper basins of major tributaries of the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers. Guerrillas control the area east of the Andes. The western half of Colombia consists mainly of the Andes Mountains. The mountains open onto the Caribbean Lowlands, where the three major ports of Baranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta are located. The population of Colombia is 40 million people. The capital city is Bogota. Violence tends to run very high in Colombia, probably due to its poor economic conditions. Colombia's greatest legal income is from coffee. Columbia's greatest illegal income, to the delight of many Americans, comes from the production of cocaine. Cocaine is produced mainly in the eastern part of Colombia. The city of Medellin controls most of the cocaine distribution although other cities such as Cali are also involved. Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia together produce 75% of the world's cocaine.

Argentina has a population of about 37 million people and an area of 1.1 million square miles. The majority of the population lives in the plains around the capital of Buenos Aires. The Pampas are grassland ranching areas around Buenos Aires where the grass grows year-round. As a result, Argentina has a good cattle ranching industry that dates back hundreds of years. Live cattle were shipped to European countries until the invention of the refrigerated rail car in the 1870's. Between the periods of the 1870's to the 1930's, the demand for beef from Argentina was so great that many Italians came over to Argentina as indentured servants on seven-year contracts. After the seven years were up, many Italian laborers settled in Buenos Aires and integrated into the lower-middle class eventually achieving political power. Beef from Argentina is still considered a delicacy in European countries today. Argentina has an economy based on beef and agricultural exports. Natural resources are somewhat limited although Argentina does have a small amount of oil reserves in the southern part of the country. Universities and colleges within Argentina are free so that all of the citizens can get an education.

Peru can be divided into three main cultural and physical regions. The first is the desert coast or the European-Mestizo region. Secondly, there is the Andean highlands or Ameridian region, and finally the Eastern slopes and adjoining Montana. Lima is the capital of Peru, and nearly 33% of the national population can be found here. Lima's population, nearly 24 million, is somewhat divided as it consists of approximately 65% Indian population and 35% non-Inca population. The fishing industry in Peru provides a major export along with cotton and sugar. There are three official languages spoken in Peru. The majority of 68 percent are Spanish-speaking, following by Quecha of 27 percent, and Aymara with only 3 percent of the population. Peru has been gradually recovering from the numerous guerrilla movements previously faced. In fact, it was one of the fastest growing economies in 1995.  The current leader of Peru is Fujimori who is of Japanese descent.  He was elected president of Peru in 1990 and served as a strong autocratic leader.

Venezuela, located in the northern tip of South America, has a population of 24.2 million people concentrated in the Venezuelan highlands. The capital city of Venezuela is Caracas with a population of around 3 million people. Venezuela has a very prosperous economy based on the oil reserves located within the country. Over 90% of Venezuela's national income is from the oil found in the Maracaibo Basin. Venezuela has been exporting oil since the 1920's, and the Venezuelan government now regulates it. Venezuela has llanos, or savanna country, in the south and east. Cattle ranching and iron ore can also be found in the south below the Orinoco River.

Chile's capital city of Santiago, located near the center of the country, contains the majority of the country's 14.5 million people. The central part of the country is high in industry and does well in agriculture. In fact, Chile exports grapes to the United States during our winter. The Atacama Desert is located in the north where copper mining is a big industry. A large population of Germans and Swiss occupy the southern portion of the country. However, the south is considered to be underdeveloped and under populated in comparison to the rest of the country. Chile is an elongated country with a length of nearly 2500 miles but an average width of only 90 miles. Currently, Chile is in the midst of an economic growth boom characterized by a cut in unemployment, reduction in poverty, and an influx of foreign investors. As a result, the people of Chile enjoy a relatively high standard of living with a GNP per capita of $4,990.

Ecuador has a full range of regional contrasts. It has a coastal belt, an Andean zone, and an oriente-eastern region, which is sparsely populated. Nearly half of the people live in the Andean Intermontane Basins and valleys. The most productive region, however, is the coastal strip. The largest city and commercial center of Ecuador is Guayaquil. Guayaquil is a port city with many developing industries. The other major city is Quito, found in the northern mountains. It is also the country’s capital where the aristocracy and a regional service center reside. Ecuador's western coast lowland consists of fertile tropical plains. The population of Ecuador is 12.6 million of which 10% are white, 10% are black or mulatto, and 55% are Mestizo. Ecuador is a leading banana exporter. Cocoa is another important crop for Ecuador as well as coffee, cotton, rice, and oil palms. Ecuador can be considered fairly wealthy and well developed with a GNP per capita of $1,520.

Bolivia, with a population of 8.3 million, is the poorest of the countries in South America. Bolivia is now a landlocked country because of a defeat in its war with Chile in the 1800s. Located on the boundary between Peru and Bolivia is Lake Titicaca which is the highest large lake in the world. There are many minerals in Bolivia that includes zinc, copper, silver, and tin. Tin deposits in Bolivia ranked among the world's richest, but since 1980, declining tin reserves and falling world prices have caused Bolivia's tin industry to shut down. Today, zinc has replaced tin as a major export. Natural gas and oil are also major exports. Soybean production is on the rise in the southeastern lowlands. Historically, Bolivia has been seen as one of the unstable political nations in the world.  Many governments came and went as the economy goes into deeper turmoil.  It was not until the country’s economy improved due to the production of cocaine to where Bolivia became the world’s second producer of cocaine. This allowed the “drug lords” to now have control of the government.

Paraguay, population 5.5 million, lies across a regional transition zone. The GNP per capita is more like the Andean west than the mid-Latitude south. There are more characteristics of the west found here, also. For example, 95% of Paraguay's people are Mestizo, but have an Ameridian influence. Both Spanish and Ameridian Guarani are spoken here. This country is probably the world's most completely bilingual country. Paraguay exports soybean products, cotton, timber, hides, and meat products. Paraguay is connected to the ocean by way of the Paraguay-Parana waterway. Paraguay now has democratic rule after years of dictatorship.

Uruguay is a very small and densely populated country with only 68,000 sq. miles for its 3.3 million inhabitants. The population is evenly distributed throughout the country with the only collection of people being found in the capital city of Montevideo. Montevideo has a population of 1.3 million. Located just outside of Montevideo is the major farming area of Uruguay. This area produces the vegetables, fruits, wheat, and fodder crops for the city. This has allowed Uruguay to become a fairly prosperous agricultural country. The remainder of the country is mainly used for grazing of cattle and sheep. The dominant export of Uruguay is oranges but also includes meat products, textiles, and hides. Uruguay has a very small racial minority population as the general population consists mainly of true Europeans.

The Guianas are the three remaining countries of South America.  They occupy the northeastern coast of South America and have a total population of 1.3 million.  The three nations have rather small populations on large areas of land where the majority is situated along the coast.  Even though they are located on the South American mainland, their histories, peoples, and economies are more similar to the West Indies.  The Guianas were colonized by many West European powers but were first settled by the Dutch colonists in the 1600s.  The common colonial heritage is still visible to the economy and the people even today with its major changes.  The Europeans have established various plantations that have become essential to the economy such as sugar, rice, and banana.  However, logging and the mining of gold, diamonds, and bauxite, located in the highlands, are now the leading activities to help boost the economies.  The population in the three small countries is mostly based on laborers who used to work on the plantations.  The three major cultural groups are Africans, South Asians, and Southeast Asians. Africans were first brought in as slaves but when slavery was abolished in the 1800s, Asians were brought in as indentured servants.  Most blacks have found home in the urban centers and descendants of Asian indentured servants became poor rice farmers or owners of small businesses.

Guyana, the largest population of the three, has 700,000 people.  Yet, it is a poor country with only $780 GNP.  Guyana was once ruled by Britain as British Guiana but it gained independence in 1966.  After its independence, the living standard declined due to civil strife.  Guyana has also the highest percentage of HIV and AIDS in South America of 2.1 percent.  In the early 1990s, Guyana’s exports quadrupled with the reopening of gold mines by Canadian companies.  But it suffered a loss in 1995 when the Omai gold mine had to be closed for several months due to a leakage from a settling tank in the local river.  Guyana also exports bauxite from inland mines and cultivate sugarcane on the coast.  Its capital is Georgetown and sits on the northeastern coast. Its government proved to be corrupt and violently repressive toward those opposed to their policies and is dominated by Africans and small European descendants.  Over the decades of political agitation, Asian political parties have also risen to take an important role. 

Suriname, with 400,000 people, has the highest GNP within the Guianas of $1,660.  In addition, it is only the fourth lowest on GNP of all countries in South America.  The capital city is Paramaribo.  Its government is similar to Guyana since both countries are no longer controlled by the West Europeans.  Suriname was a former Dutch colony called Dutch Guiana until its independence in 1975.  The government there is faced with the same problems as Guyana with corruptive leaders and ineffective policies.  But Asian political parties have also risen to prominence in Suriname.  The two countries often experience social turmoil such as agreeing to who has the authority, East Indians or Blacks, and which form of government will be suitable to run the country, Marxists or Capitalists.  Suriname also has huge plantations and export bauxite.  In 1994, an Indonesian company suggested upon developing Suriname’s timber resources that will allow the company to cut timber on over 40 percent of the country and to establish plywood factories.  With that proposal, the government will need to balance the potential environmental damage against the lack of other sources of income and employment.

French Guiana is the last and smallest country with the lowest population in South America.  The population is 200,000 people and has almost no one with HIV nor AIDS.  Unfortunately it does not have much of a GNP either.  French Guiana, unlike the other two countries, has not gain its independence and is still under French rule.  It is considered to be an integral part of France and serves as a principal European spaceport.  Its capital is Cayenne and is located in the northern coast as with all the capitals in the Guianas.  As a French territory, the country has access to export timber to Europe.  French Guiana has strong ties to the Europe Union through the extensive facilities for the European space program.  The climate here is warm year-round which allows space facilities set up there along with the fact that it possess a solid position as part of France.

References

Fisher, James S.. Geography and Development. New York: Macmillan Publishing                                 Company, 1992.

Pulsipher, Lydia Mihetic.  World Regional Geography.  New York: W.H. Freeman and             Company, 2000.

Bradshaw, Michael.  A World Regional Geography.  Chicago: Brown and Benchmark              Publishers, 1997.

Review Questions

1. The major river of Venezuela's iron-rich eastern region is: A. Rio de la Plata; B. Caracas; C. Orinoco; D. Amazon; E. Zambezi.

2. The dominant economic activity of Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo Lowland is: A. large-scale cattle herding; B. oil production; C. tourism; D. iron ore mining; E. plantation agriculture.

3. Bogota, Colombia's capital city, is located: A. on the arid Pacific coast; B. on the Caribean Sea at the outlet of the Magdalena Valley; C. at the intersection of three valleys in the eastern savanna zone near the Chilean border; D. in a major Andean upland basin; E. near the port city of Cartagena.

4. Which of the following countries does not contain a portion of the upper Amazon River within its boundaries: A. Brazil; B. Ecuador; C. Peru; D. Colombia; E. Venezuela.

5. Chile's copper deposits are located closest to which of the following areas: A. the vicinity of Santiago in Middle Chile; B. the Atacama Desert; C. the eastern Pampas; D. Tierra del Fuego; E. none of the above.

6. Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of population of Indian stock? A. Brazil; B. Paraguay; C. Peru; D. Uruguay; E. Argentina.

7. For most of the 1900s, Bolivia's most valuable natural resource and leading (legal) export commodity was: A. petroleum; B. quebracho extract; C. chaco; D. tin; E. sulfates.

8. Chile's copper deposits are located closest to which of the following areas: A. around Santiago; B. the Atacama Desert; C. Tierra del Fuego; D. near the border with Argentina; E. near the central coastal area.

9. Mestizo refers to: A. a mix of European and Indian population; B. a type of Indian population; C. a plant that grows throughout Latin America; D. a cactus; E. none of the above.

10. Which of the following countries is best endowed with mineral resources: A. Bolivia; B. Colombia; C. Ecuador; D. Venezuela; E. none of the above.

11. In which of the following countries is Spanish NOT the dominant language: A. Brazil; B. Colombia; C. Costa Rica; D. Argentina; E. Ecuador.

12. Which of the following countries has the higher standard of living: A. Colombia; B. Brazil; C. Argentina; D. Bolivia; E. Peru.

13. The Atacama Desert is located in which country: A. Brazil; B. Argentina; C. Chile; D. Venezuela; E. Bolivia.

14. The pampas of Argentina and the llanos of Venezuela became early specialized in: A. tropical plantations; B. a livestock economy; C. mining; D. forest products, especially naval stores; E. manufacturing.

15. Portuguese settlement in Brazil was furthered by: A. overpopulation at home in Portugal; B. the discovery of large quantities of gold in coastal areas; C. success in plantation agriculture, particularly sugar; D. successful battles over the Spanish in the Caribbean before1530; E. the geographical location.

16. A primary reason for the modern-day penetration of the Brazilian interior is: A. the decimation of the Indian population of the Amazon Basin has resulted in unhindered settlement; B. the fertile agricultural soils of the rain forest; C. very high Brazilian population growth rates; D. population growth along Brazil's borders in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia; E. growing diseases.

17. Which of the following was not a major motivation to most Spaniards who colonized in the New World? A. acquiring a small farm on which one could raise a family; B. the propagation of Roman Catholicism; C. the rapid acquisition of personal wealth; D. living ostentatiously off of the labors of others; E. distant themselves from Home.

18. Which of the following is not a significant source region of petroleum production in South America? A. the Atacama Desert; B. the Ecuadorian Oriente; C. the Venezuelan llanos; D. the Maracaibo Lowlands; E. the Andean Zone.

19. Which of the following has not been associated with a Brazilian boom and bust cycle? A. coffee; B. rubber; C. sugar; D. bananas; E. cocaine.

20. Coca is: A. the raw material used to produce chocolate; B. cultivated primarily in the eastern foothills of the Andes as they grade into the Amazon lowlands; C. a tuber grown in the mountains of Peru; D. the source of caffeine in coffee; E. Coca-Cola.

21. The least politically stable nation in South America, as measured in terms of frequency of governmental turnover and the influence of drug and crime syndicates is: A. Paraguay; B. Venezuela; C. Bolivia; D. Brazil; E. Argentina.

22. The great Argentine cattle ranches of the Pampas region are called: A. estancias; B. haciendas; C. plantations; D. fincas; E. none of the above.

23. The turning point in the economic development of Argentina as a nation was: A. the introduction of refrigerated railroad and ship transportation that facilitated the exporting of Argentine beef to Europe; B. the importation of thousands of indentured farm laborers from Europe; C. the rise to power of Juan Peron and his support of the descamisados; D. the introduction of beef cattle by the Spanish conquistadors; E. none of the above.

24. Which of the following is not true of Sao Paulo as a city and/or region: A. generates almost two-thirds of Brazil's industrial output; B. Sao Paulo city is now the most populous city in South America; C. was initially developed as the country's leading sugar producing region; D. is Brazil's most modern, productive and prosperous region; E. none of the above.

25. The first of the "boom and bust" cycles of Brazil was centered around: A. oil; B. automobiles; C. cocaine; D. marijuana; E. sugar.

26. Chile exports what to the United States during the winter? A. cocoa; B. bananas; C. cattle; D. grapes; E. oil.

27. Which three countries produce 75% of the world's cocaine supply? A. Guyana, Ecuador, Brazil; B. Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname; C. Paraguay, Peru, Colombia; D. Bolivia, Peru, Colombia; E. Peru, Argentina, Brazil

28. Where were the indentured servants brought from after slavery was abolished?  A. Africa; B. North America; C. Australia; D. Greenland; E. Asia.

29. This country is still under colonial rule: A. Guyana; B. French Guiana; C. Suriname; D. Uruguay; E. Peru.

30. The Guianas were first settled by which West European powers?  A. Spanish; B. French; C. Dutch; D. British; E. Chinese.


(Submitted by Kami and Dusti Hansen 1996. Re-submitted by Matt Williams on 04 May 1997. Re-submitted by Koshoua Cat Xiong, November 3, 2000.