Chapter 9

 

 

Picture Page

Level of Difficulty: 

 

 

 

 

 

9.1 Introduction

The Picture page is a web document that displays pictures of a region or a single country within a region. This page provides a set of visual images associated with the area. Each picture has a caption that describes the picture and how it is representative of the country or region.

            The captions are a vital part of the Picture page. The saying “A picture is worth a thousand words” seems to suggest that pictures can replace words. This is not the case.  A carefully written caption brings meaning to a picture and puts it in context.  A good caption brings ‘life’ to a picture.

            It is important to select pictures that are representative of the region.  The pictures also need to be grouped in a logical way.  For example, the initial pictures might be of the physical landscape, followed by pictures of the human environment. The last section might have pictures of human‑induced changes to the physical environment (e.g., terraced fields in China). 

 

9.2  Finding Pictures

Finding pictures on the Web is best done with search engines. The problem with this approach is that pictures are stored in a variety of different graphic file formats that do not contain any recognizable text that search engines need to index files.  As a result, the search engine can do nothing more than index the name of the file. In this case, the keyword would have to match the name of the file (e.g., “Afghanistan.gif”) in order for it to be found.  This graphic file could be a map or chart or other type of graphic file.

Many search engines can be set to search specifically for images (see Fig. 9.1).  Other search engines also implement this search technique.  In some cases, as with AltaVista, the search engine for graphic files finds pictures from a company that sells stock pictures.  These pictures are usually very small and include a “watermark” across the picture that indicates the picture is copyrighted.  Larger, noncopyrighted pictures can be found at government sites or sites created by nonprofit organizations.

 

 

Figure 9.1  The Image Search option in a popular search engine.  This option only returns files in one of several picture formats.

 

Picture files on the web end with the suffix gif, jpg, jpeg, or png (see Appendix D).  A file can be identified as a picture if the name of the file ends with these four suffixes. If the address ends in html, or htm, the file is a regular HTML page, not a picture, although the page may display a picture.

 

9.3  Finding the HTTP Address of a Picture

To find the http address of a picture using the Netscape browser, click and hold down the right mouse button on the picture to get the option Copy this Image Location in the pop-up menu (simply hold mouse button down on a Macintosh). This copies the address of the picture to a temporary clipboard. To view this image by itself on the webpage, paste the address of the picture into the address bar of the web‑browser, as in Fig. 9.2.

 

 

Figure 9.2   The HTTP address of a picture shown in a website line of a browser.

 

 

Notice how the address of the picture ends with .jpg indicating a picture file.  Once the address is in the address line, hit the return key to view this image by itself. It is best to paste this address into a text file (Notepad, SimpleText) to avoid making a typing error when retyping the address. A single incorrectly-typed character will lead to a bad address and the picture will not be displayed.

With Microsoft's Internet Explorer, a slightly different menu appears as a result of holding the mouse button down on the image (Mac) or choosing the right‑click button on the image (for Windows see left menu in Fig. 9.3). This menu includes an option called Properties, which opens a dialog box that describes the properties of the image, including its location. This location can be copied to the clipboard by dragging the mouse over the name of the image and selecting Copy from the menu that pops up by clicking on the right mouse button (in Windows). Pasting the address of the image on the site‑address line and hitting return will display the image by itself.

 

Figure 9.3   Finding the HTTP address of a picture with Internet Explorer.  A right mouse click on the image presents the menu on the left. Choosing properties displays the dialog box on the right.  The address of the picture is given on the address line.

 


9.4  Examples of Pictures and Captions

It is important to evaluate the quality of the pictures that you find.  For example, do not choose pictures that are too small, as in Fig. 9.4.  Pictures that do not fit on the screen can be reduced in size, as described in Appendix D, but small pictures should not be increased in size because they will become grainy in appearance.

 

 

Figure 9.4  This picture of Hong Kong is too small to be useful. Pictures need to be at least 300 to 400 pixels. The dimensions of the picture in pixels can be determined in Explorer from the properties dialog box as shown in Fig. 9.3 or from the webpage title bar in Netscape.

 

 

The captions for each picture are equally important. They should describe what the picture shows and its significance in the country or region. Captions should be about 100 words in length.  Fig. 9.5 - 9.13 depicts some good pictures and captions. The pictures are representative of the region and the captions describe the significance of what is depicted in the picture. The captions in Fig. 9.14 - 9.15 are examples of poorly written captions.

 

 

Figure 9.5  A market scene in Papantla, Mexico, north of Vera Cruz along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.  A Totonac Indian in traditional white cotton attire looks over the market.  Visiting the market from the countryside, this man stands in sharp contrast with the couple in the more westernized clothing selling food in the foreground.  Galvanized metal roofing in the background protects the market stalls from rain.  The hill behind the market is characterized by tropical vegetation.  The Totonac were the first natives that Cortés met on landing in Mexico in 1519.  The modern Totonac are industrious farmers.  The major crop in the hills around Papantla is the vanilla bean.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.6  Brigham City Tabernacle, Brigham City, UtahOne of the finest examples of 19th century Mormon architecture.  The city of Brigham Young was founded at the 1853 Mormon general conference when church president Brigham Young directed an apostle in the church to take 50 families to the area and develop a cooperative system in which the community would become self‑sufficient.   Most early settlers were Mormon converts from DenmarkIn 1865, Brigham Young directed community leaders to build a tabernacle.  The cornerstones were laid in 1865. The first meeting in the partially completed building took place in 1879.  The tabernacle wasn't finished until 1890, a full 25 years after it was begun.  In 1971, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  The tabernacle is an impressive artifact of the Mormon cultural region.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

Figure 9.7  Roman aqueduct in Segovia, SpainJust across the mountains from Madrid is the small city of Segovia. It is famous for the tall, two-tiered aqueduct that cuts across the city center.  Begun around 50 A.D., the aqueduct is one of the greatest surviving monuments of Roman engineering, The total length is about 2,950 feet, and it is constructed of rough‑hewn massive granite blocks that are joined without mortar or clamps. The aqueduct was built to carry water from the nearby mountains to the city and is an enduring monument to the influence of Roman civilization.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.8  Mennonite Market near Kitchener, Ontario, Canada.  Mennonites speak an 18th century German language and distinguish themselves from the local community by dressing in old‑fashioned clothes. Rules vary among Mennonite groups, but most prohibit smoking, drinking, attending parties or dancing. Most groups, like the Amish, forbid the use of cars or any type of modern machinery.  Some groups permit cars, but they must be black in color. The Mennonites attend their own schools and many have left the United States for countries that have fewer controls on private schooling.   Here, a Mennonite girl selling vegetables and apples waits for customers.  Behind her is a horse-drawn buggy.  Kitchener is located about 70 miles west of Toronto and 45 miles north of Hamilton.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.9  A father and daughter eating take‑out meals from MacDonald's in a park in Guangzhou, China.  MacDonald's has 23,500 restaurants in 113 countries, including over 500 in China as of 2002, an increase from only 184 restaurants in 1997. The country represents one of MacDonald's fastest growing markets, and the company plans on adding over 100 restaurants every year.  It has been argued that fast‑food restaurants are helping to create a homogenous worldwide food culture.  The pair in this photo has become part of that culture, although the daughter seems more interested in the food than the father.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.10  A hillside and mountain valley above Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland, one of the most spectacular glacial valleys in Europe.  Characterized by many waterfalls, the valley lies just south of Interlaaken.  Farmhouses dot the slope in the foreground.  Wengen, a nearby skiing village, is a major destination during the winter months.  Switzerland has been recognized as a neutral country since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.  This neutrality has been furthered by a strong defense.  The mountains of Switzerland are a part of that defense system.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.11  A salesman at a market in San Martin Jilotepeque, Guatemala.  The weekly market in this Mayan city in the western highlands of Guatemala brings salesmen from the city.  The "snake oil" salesman pictured here in sunglasses is pointing to a list that explains the benefits of his elixir.  A crowd gathers around to hear the man give his animated presentation.  The people in this remote village north of Guatemala City still speak a Mayan language, although the salesmen speaks Spanish.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.12  Sheep dot a pasture in Tasmania, Australia. The country of Australia with 20 million people, has over 120 million sheep and is the world's leading producer of wool.  Over 4 million of these sheep are on the small island of Tasmania, with a human population of just over 450,000.  The wool grown in Tasmania is of a very high quality.  The Merino is the most common breed in Australia.  It has been specifically bred so that its skin is much larger than it's body, with many folds, thus producing more wool.  Each animal produces an average of 4.2 kg (9.25 lbs) of wool a year.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.13  The city of Casares in the southern province of Andalucia in Spain.  The city is located in the mountains of southeastern Spain just 15 km from the coast and 100 km from Gibraltar.  The white buildings are an indication of the region's Moorish past. The buildings were built many centuries ago by the Moors, who came from the Middle East and established communities in areas that were difficult to invade.  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

 

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Figure 9.14  In the heart of Australia lie three unusual rock formations. These rock formations are called monoliths, and Ayers Rock is the most famous one. If you are fit, you can climb to the top of Ayers Rock. The reward is a view of the endless flat desert landscape interrupted only by the other two monoliths, Mt. Conner on one horizon and the Olgas on the other. There are also many caves to explore at the base of the rock, and if you happen to see the Ayers Rock on a rare rainy day, you will see hundreds of waterfalls that flow down the unusual grooves on the sides.  (Note: The caption should include the importance of Ayers Rock to the aborigines, now referred to by the aboriginal name, Uluru.)  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

Figure 9.15  Welcome to Moloka'i, the most Hawaiian island, often called "The Friendly Island" because the aloha spirit flourishes here. If you're looking for the real Hawai'i, this is it. If you're looking for old Hawai'i, this is it. If you're looking for breathtaking natural beauty, rain forests, or deserted beaches, this is it. If you're looking for glitz and glamour, you'll need to look elsewhere. This is an honest look at an island lost in time, an island where no building is taller than a palm tree, where aloha is not just a word, it's a way of life.  (Note:  This caption sounds like it was written to promote tourism.)  Picture by Michael P. Peterson.

 

9.5  Formatting the Picture Page

As with the previous pages, the picture page can be done with a text editor, word processor, or a webpage editor.  Using a word processor is the easiest approach, but it requires an extra step.  When the document is saved, the pictures are separated from the text file and given new names.  Therefore, the original HTTP address of the picture must be inserted under the picture.

 

9.51  Using a Text Editor

Pictures are linked from HTML files.  The link is made with the IMG tag, as in:

<IMG SRC="http://web address of the picture">

Inserting the http address displays the picture:

<IMG SRC="http://maps.unomaha.edu/Peterson/funda/PicturePage/citssfbridge.jpg">

 

The template file in Fig. 9.6 is available in the web resources page.  It includes a link to a picture of Mexico and a caption.

 

<HTML>

<TITLE> Picture Page on Mexico</TITLE>

<HR>

<H1> Picture Page on Mexico </H1> 

<HR>

<H2> Outline </H2>

<OL> 

 <LI>Physical and Natural Environment

  <UL>   

    <LI>Title of first picture

    <LI>Title of second picture

    <LI>Title of third picture

  </UL>

 <LI>Human Environment

  <UL>

    <LI>Title of first picture

    <LI>Title of second picture

    <LI>Title of third picture

  </UL>

 <LI>Human-Induced Changes to the Physical Environment

  <UL>   

    <LI>Agricultural land-use in the mountains of Mexico

    <LI>Title of second picture

    <LI>Title of third picture

  </UL>

 <LI>References

</OL>

<HR>

<H2> Physical and Natural Environment </H2>

(Insert pictures here followed by captions.)

 

<H2> Human Environment </H2>

(Insert pictures here followed by captions.)

 

<H2> Human-Induced Changes to the Physical Environment </H2>

(Insert pictures here followed by captions.)

 

<H3> Title of Picture (e.g., Agricultural land use in the mountains of Mexico) </H3>

<IMG SRC=" http://maps.unomaha.edu/Peterson/funda/PicturePage/MexicoSlope.JPG" WIDTH="542" HEIGHT="363">

<P>

Paragraph describing the picture. This paragraph should be about 100 words. Example:

Mexico, a country with over 100 million people, is experiencing increasing pressure on its natural environment. This picture depicts a scene in the mountains of southern Mexico. The land in this hilly and forested region is being transformed to agricultural use. Corn has been planted on the steep slope on the hill in the upper part of the picture.  Corn lends itself to planting and harvesting by machine, but a tractor and harvester cannot be used on the slope depicted here.  All planting and harvesting must be done by hand, an indication of the need for manual labor. The foreground depicts a winding mountain road.  Trees remain in areas of more severe slope, especially near the roadway. Picture by Michael P. Peterson

 

<LI> References

 

<P> <HR> <P>

 

Submitted by your name on date.

 

 

Figure 9.6   Source code of the Links page template file.

 


Picture Page on Nepal

 


Outline

1. Physical and Natural Environment

·         Title of first picture

·         Title of second picture

·         Title of third picture

2. Human Environment

·         Title of first picture

·         Title of second picture

·         Title of third picture

3. Human-Induced Changes to the Physical Environment

·         Agricultural land use in the mountains of Mexico

·         Title of second picture

·         Title of third picture

4. References

 


Physical and Natural Environment

(Insert pictures here followed by captions.)

Human Environment

(Insert pictures here followed by captions.)

Human-Induced Changes to the Physical Environment

Agricultural land use in the Mountains of Mexico


Mexico, a country with over 100 million people, is experiencing increasing pressure on its natural environment. This picture depicts a scene in the mountains of southern Mexico. The land in this hilly and forested region is being transformed to agricultural land use. Corn has been planted on the steep slope on the hill in the upper part of the picture.  Corn lends itself to planting and harvesting by machine, but a tractor and harvester cannot be used on the slope depicted here.  All planting and harvesting must be done by hand, an indication of the need for manual labor. The foreground depicts a winding mountain road.  Trees remain in areas of more severe slope, especially near the roadway. Picture by Michael P. Peterson

References

 

 

Submitted by your name on date.

Figure 9.7    Picture page template file as viewed through a browser.

 

9.52  Picture Page with a Word Processor

A webpage that displays 9 pictures is composed of a total of ten files:  nine picture files and one HTML file with captions and links to the nine pictures.  Word processing programs generally insert the pictures into the same file as the text but in a proprietary file format (e.g., .doc file).  This means that only one file is used to display all 9 pictures and accompanying text.  The advantage of this approach is that the picture page is more self-contained, and one has the ability to check spelling and grammar of the caption text.  The disadvantage of this approach is that the format is not suitable for the Internet because it is not readable unless one has the same word-processing program.

            To maintain a record of where the picture is from, the only change that has to be made to the picture page produced with a word processor is that the address of the picture needs to be inserted below each picture, as shown in Fig. 9.8.

 

 

Figure 9.8   Picture and HTTP address as it should appear in the picture page.  The picture would be accompanied by a caption of approximately 100 words.  (http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/97c3109.jpg)

 

 

       Making a picture page with a word-processing program also starts with the template file.  This file is then converted to the format required by the user’s software.  In the case of Microsoft Word, this would create a “template.doc” file.  The .doc extension indicates a Word file that is capable of storing both text and pictures.

            After finding appropriate pictures with a browser and search engine, the pictures can be copied from the webpage and inserted directly into the word‑processing document.  The address of the file would then need to be copied separately by either opening the image in a new window and copying the address from the address line, or by extracting the name from the Properties menu (right-mouse click). The last step would be to add a hyperlink to the address of the picture as described in Chapter 8. This would make it possible for the user to click on the address and open the picture.

            The size of the picture can also be adjusted with a word-processing program by clicking and dragging on the corner of the image.  Adjusting the size by dragging the sides of the picture, instead of a corner, will cause the picture to shrink in one dimension more than the other.   The procedure is usually used to make large images smaller so that they fit on the page.  Making small images bigger is discouraged because the images become grainy.

 

9.53 Using a Webpage Editor

To create the picture page with an HTML editor, choose the Picture page template file from the web resources page.  Netscape and Explorer may have a short-cut to a webpage editor. An Insert Image icon in the toolbar can be used to insert an image into your webpage (see Fig. 9.9).

Figure 9.9  Netscape Composer icons. The Insert Image link is used to insert images.

 

 

            This opens a dialog box, depicted in Fig. 9.10, in which the address of the picture can be inserted. A link can also be attached to the picture, as in the dialog box in Fig. 9.11.  This might be used to link to the original, perhaps larger, version of the picture.  FrontPage uses similar icons and dialog boxes.

 

 

 

Figure 9.10   The Netscape Composer dialog box for inserting images. The address of the image is inserted on the Image File Name or Location line.  The size of the image can be adjusted in the lower‑left part of the dialog box.

 

 

 

Figure 9.11  The link dialog box from FrontPage. The address of the image is inserted on the Address line.  The address can also be selected from the Browsed Pages list above the address line.  This would add a link to a picture and could be used to display a larger version of the picture.

 

 

9.5  Picture Page Checklist

·        Do the pictures reflect something significant about the country or region?

·        Do captions describe what the picture is showing and how the picture reflects the country or region?

·        Does the page follow the format of the template file?

·        Check grammar and spelling in captions.