Workshops offered by Professor Peterson

Geography Standard 1: Maps

A. Definition

"Graphic representation of selected aspects of the Earth's surface."

B. Purpose

1. Communication

2. Analysis

C. Types

1. General Reference (in place)

early example: land ownership map of Mesopotamia , 2500 B.C.

2. Thematic (about space)

early example: Dr. Snow Cholera map of London , 1855

D. Map Projections

1. Problems with the Mercator (distorts area, preserves angular relationship over small areas)

2. Angles vs. Area

3. Push for alternative projections (compromise in distortion of angles and areas) by NGS

4. Use differerent projections and point out differences between them

5. Compare size and angles (shape) to globe

E. Map Scale

1. Bar

2. Verbal (ex. 1 inch : 10 miles)

3. Representative Fraction (ex. 1:24,000)

4. Smaller Scale (smaller fraction) = more ABSTRACTION / GENERALIZATION

5. Meaning of scale with maps on the web

F. Cartographic Abstraction

1. Selection

a. scale

b. theme / purpose

c. features to include ( Baltimore vs. Omaha )

2. Exaggeration

a. features enlarged in size (roads)

b. many features would not be visible on maps unless they were made larger than they actually are

3. Simplification

a. shape of river

b. not all meanders shown

4. Classification

a. qualitative: climate category, land use

b. quantitative: cities by size, roads by size

5. Symbolization

a. pictographic symbols

b. geometric symbols (legend needed)







Contact | ©2004 Michael Peterson